Source: PubMed <http://www.pubmed.gov/>
The following list of subject headings can be used when conducting searches in PubMed for evidence-based public health research articles.
In addition to the subject headings listed, you can also do title
searches [ti] in PubMed on the following
Best evidence [ti]
Critical appraisal [ti]
Effective Programs [ti]
Evidence based public health [ti]
Science based [ti]
Systematic review [ti]
Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other
institutions on policy. (From Bioethics Thesaurus). Year introduced: 2002.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially
biology and physiology, to medicine. (From American Heritage Dictionary,
4th ed). Year introduced: 2003.
Case control studies:
Studies which start with the identification
of persons with a disease of interest
and a control (comparison, referent) group
without the disease. The relationship
of an attribute to the disease is examined
by comparing diseased and non-diseased
persons with regard to the frequency or
levels of the attribute in each group.
Year introduced: 1990.
Case reports [Publication Type]:
Clinical presentations that may be followed by evaluative studies that
eventually lead to a diagnosis. Year introduced: 1966.
Pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy,
or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate)
of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic,
or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques
selected according to predetermined criteria
of eligibility and observed for predefined
evidence of favorable and unfavorable
effects. This concept includes clinical
trials conducted both in the U.S. and
in other countries. Year introduced: 1980.
Studies in which subsets of a defined
population are identified. These groups
may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized
to influence the probability of the occurrence
of a particular disease or other outcome.
Cohorts are defined populations which,
as a whole, are followed in an attempt
to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Year introduced: 1989.
Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.
Year introduced: 1978.
A method of comparing the cost of a program
with its expected benefits in dollars
(or other currency). The benefit-to-cost
ratio is a measure of total return expected
per unit of money spent. This analysis
generally excludes consideration of factors
that are not measured ultimately in economic
terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative
ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Year introduced: 1976.
Studies in which the presence or absence
of disease or other health-related variables
are determined in each member of the study
population or in a representative sample
at one particular time. This contrasts
with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed
over a period of time. Year introduced:
The process of making a selective intellectual
judgment when presented with several complex
alternatives consisting of several variables,
and usually defining a course of action
or an idea.
Decision support techniques:
Mathematical or statistical procedures
used as aids in making a decision. They
are frequently used in medical decision-making.
Year introduced: 1991.
Epidemiologic research design:
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical
research. Year introduced: 1998.
Studies designed to examine associations,
commonly, hypothesized causal relations.
They are usually concerned with identifying
or measuring the effects of risk factors
or exposures. The common types of analytic
study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT
STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Year introduced: 1998.
Evaluation studies [Publication Type]:
Works consisting of studies determining
the effectiveness or utility of processes,
personnel, and equipment. Year introduced:
The process of systematically finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions. Evidence-based medicine asks questions, finds and appraises the relevant data, and harnesses that information for everyday clinical practice. Evidence-based medicine follows four steps: formulate a clear clinical question from a patient's problem; search the literature for relevant clinical articles; evaluate (critically appraise) the evidence for its validity and usefulness; implement useful findings in clinical practice. The term "evidence based medicine" (no hyphen) was coined at McMaster Medical School in Canada in the 1980's to label this clinical learning strategy, which people at the school had been developing for over a decade. (From BMJ 1995;310:1122).
Year introduced: 1997.
Health services research:
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other
analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services
research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand,
supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is
evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and
outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed). Year introduced:
Epidemiologic investigations designed
to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation
by modifying the supposed causal factor(s)
in the study population. Year introduced:
Studies in which variables relating to
an individual or group of individuals
are assessed over a period of time. Year
introduced: 1979 (1975).
A quantitative method of combining the
results of independent studies (usually
drawn from the published literature) and
synthesizing summaries and conclusions
which may be used to evaluate therapeutic
effectiveness, plan new studies, etc.,
with application chiefly in the areas
of research and medicine. Year introduced:
Outcome assessment (health care):
Research aimed at assessing the quality
and effectiveness of health care as measured
by the attainment of a specified end result
or outcome. Measures include parameters
such as improved health, lowered morbidity
or mortality, and improvement of abnormal
states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Year introduced: 1992.
Peer review, research:
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or
research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used
by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting
agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic
institutions in tenure decisions. Year introduced: 1994.
Observation of a population for a sufficient
number of persons over a sufficient number
of years to generate incidence or mortality
rates subsequent to the selection of the
study group. Year introduced: 1967 (1965).
Directions or principles presenting current
or future rules of policy for assisting
health care practitioners in patient care
decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy,
or related clinical circumstances. The
guidelines may be developed by government
agencies at any level, institutions, professional
societies, governing boards, or by the
convening of expert panels. The guidelines
form a basis for the evaluation of all
aspects of health care and delivery. Year
Studies designed to assess the efficacy
of programs. They may include the evaluation
of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which
objectives are met, or impact. Year introduced:
Research that derives data from observation, interviews, or verbal
interactions and focuses on the meanings and interpretations of the
participants (From Holloway and Wheeler, "Ethical issues in qualitative
nursing research," Nursing Ethics, 1995 Sep; 2(3): 223-232). Year
Randomized controlled trials:
Clinical trials that involve at least
one test treatment and one control treatment,
concurrent enrollment and follow-up of
the test- and control-treated groups,
and in which the treatments to be administered
are selected by a random process, such
as the use of a random-numbers table.
Treatment allocations using coin flips,
odd-even numbers, patient social security
numbers, days of the week, medical record
numbers, or other such pseudo- or quasi-random
processes, are not truly randomized and
trials employing any of these techniques
for patient assignment are designated
simply CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS. Year
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its
aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the
revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly
discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised
conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed).
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can
be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be
tested properly. Year introduced: 1973.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses
in which inferences about an exposure
to putative causal factors are derived
from data relating to characteristics
of persons under study or to events or
experiences in their past. The essential
feature is that some of the persons under
study have the disease or outcome of interest
and their characteristics are compared
with those of unaffected persons. Year
introduced: 1967 (1965).
The qualitative or quantitative estimation
of the likelihood of adverse effects that
may result from exposure to specified
health hazards or from the absence of
beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary
of Epidemiology, 1988). Year introduced:
Validation studies [Publication Type]:
Works consisting of research using processes
by which the reliability and relevance
of a procedure for a specific purpose
are established. Year introduced: 2001.